Unfortunately, Brugnatelli's inventions were repressed by the French Academy of Sciences and did not become used in general industry for the following thirty years. For a variety of reasons this practice was not always adhered to and the resulting anomalies can be seen in the tables of marks. In the duty mark was created to indicate a tax on the item had been paid to the crown. Silver Dictionary' of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertua pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, Sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkingtonhistory, oddities
Most British and Irish silver carries a number of stamps indicating not just the standard or purity mark typically the lion passant but also the initials of the maker, a date letter and the place of assay.